Jinn | Wikipedia audio article

Jinn | Wikipedia audio article

October 14, 2019 1 By William Hollis


Jinn (Arabic: الجن‎, al-jinn), also
Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or
demons, depending on source), are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and
later Islamic mythology and theology. Since jinn are neither innately evil nor innately
good, Islam was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion.Jinn
are not a strictly Islamic concept; rather, they may represent several pagan beliefs integrated
into Islam.Besides the jinn, Islam acknowledges the existence of demons (Shayāṭīn). The lines between demons and jinn are often
blurred, since malevolent jinn are also called shayāṭīn in some sources. However both Islam and non-Islamic scholarship
generally distinguishes between angels, jinn and demons (shayāṭīn) as three different
types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions. The jinn are distinguished from demons in
that they can be both evil and good, while genuine demons are exclusively evil. Some academic scholars assert that demons
are related to monotheistic traditions and jinn to polytheistic traditions.In an Islamic
context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural
creature and also to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature.==Etymology==
Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN (Arabic: جَنّ
/ جُنّ‎, jann), whose primary meaning is “to hide” or “to conceal”. Some authors interpret the word to mean, literally,
“beings that are concealed from the senses”. Cognates include the Arabic majnūn (“possessed”,
or generally “insane”), jannah (“garden”, also “heaven”), and janīn (“embryo”). Jinn is properly treated as a plural, with
the singular being jinnī. The origin of the word Jinn remains uncertain. Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn
to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under
Tiberius Augustus, but this derivation is also disputed. Another suggestion holds that jinn may be
derived from Aramaic “ginnaya” (Classical Syriac: ܓܢܬܐ‎) with the meaning of “tutelary
deity”, or also “garden”. Others claim a Persian origin of the word,
in the form of the Avestic “Jaini”, a wicked (female) spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the
possibly even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran.The Anglicized form genie
is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people
and places in Roman religion. It first appeared in 18th-century translations
of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, where it had been used owing to its rough
similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits,
in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature. In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between
humans and divinities are also called genie.==Pre-Islamic Arabia==Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during
the Pre-Islamic period, but, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. In ancient Arabia, the term jinn also applied
to all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; thus, Zoroastrian,
Christian, and Jewish angels and demons were also called “jinn”.The exact origins of belief
in jinn are not entirely clear. Some scholars of the Middle East hold that
they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who often took
the forms of animals; others hold that they were originally pagan nature deities who gradually
became marginalized as other deities took greater importance. According to common Arabian belief, soothsayers,
pre-Islamic philosophers, and poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were also feared and thought
to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits
were thought to inhabit desolate, dingy, and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them, but
they were not the objects of a true cult.==Islamic theology==In the Islamic sense, the term jinn is used
in two different ways: As invisible entities, who roamed the earth
before Adam, created by God out of a “mixture of fire” or “smokeless fire”. They are believed to resemble humans in that
they eat and drink, have children and die, are subject to judgment, so will either be
sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds. But they were much faster and stronger than
humans. Jinn are also related to heavenly beings,
a sub-category of angels or a tribe of angelic beings, who are able to sin and were created
from fire, unlike their light-created counterparts. However these jinn must be distinguished,
from the pre-Adamite jinn-race, who share many characteristics with human, instead of
angels.As the opposite of al-Ins (something in shape) referring to any object that cannot
be detected by human sensory organs, including angels, demons and the interior of human beings. Thus every demon and every angel is also a
jinn, but not every jinn is an angel or a demon.Belief in jinn is not included among
the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is, however at least some Muslims
believe it essential to the Islamic faith. Jinn are mentioned approximately 29 times
in the Quran often together with humans, and the 72 surah (chapter) named after them (Al-Jinn). They are also mentioned in collections of
Ṣaḥīḥ (authentic) hadith. One hadith divides them into three groups,
with one type flying through the air; another that are snakes and dogs; and a third that
moves from place to place like human.In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet
to both human and jinn communities, and that prophets and messengers were sent to both
communities. Traditionally Surah 72 is held to tell about
the revelation to jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad’s followers accompanied
him, witnessing the revelation to the jinn.Another Islamic prophet, who is related to interactions
with jinn, is Solomon. In the Quran, he is said to be a king in ancient
Israel and was gifted by God to talk to animals and jinn. God granted him authority over the rebellious
jinn or marid, thus Solomon forced them to build the First Temple. Beliefs regarding Solomon and his power over
the jinn were later extended in folklore and folktales. Related to common traditions, the angels were
created on Wednesday, the jinn on Thursday and humans on Friday, but not the very next
day, rather more than 1000 years later. The community of the jinn race were like those
of humans, but then corruption and injustice among them increased and all warnings sent
by God were ignored. Consequently, God sent his angels to battle
the infidel jinn. Just a few survived, and were ousted to far
islands or to the mountains. With the revelation of Islam, the jinn were
given a new chance to access salvation. But because of their prior creation, the jinn
would attribute themselves to a superiority over humans and envy them for their place
and rank on earth.==Development of Islamic Jinn belief=====
In the beginning of Islam===In early Islamic development, the status of
jinn were reduced from that of deities to minor spirits. To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic
concept of Tauhid, all affinities between the jinn and God were denied, thus jinn were
placed parallel to humans, also subject to God’s judgment and able to attain Paradise
or Hell. However, even though their status as tutelary
deities was reduced, they were not consequently regarded as demons. In later revelations, the concept of demons
and angels distinct from the pagan jinn were made. T. Fahd stated, the jinn were related to the
pagan belief, while the demons and angels were borrowed from monotheistic concepts of
angels and demons. In later revelations the demons and the jinn
seems to be used interchangeably, here placing the jinn with the devil, against the angels
and Muhammad.===Jinn belief in the later centuries===When Islam spread outside of Arabia, belief
in the jinn was assimilated with local belief about spirits and deities from Iran, Africa,
Turkey and India. Persians, for example, identified the jinn
in the Quran with the Div from Zoroastrian lore. Developed from various traditions and local
folklore, but not mentioned in canonical Islamic scriptures, jinn were thought to be able to
possess humans; Morocco especially has many possession traditions, including exorcism
rituals. In Sindh the concept of the jinni was introduced
during the Abbasid Era and has become a common part of local folklore, also including stories
of both male jinn called “jinn” and female jinn called “Jiniri”. Folk stories of female jinn include stories
such as the Jejhal Jiniri. Although, due to the cultural influence, the
concept of jinn may vary, all share some common features. The jinn are believed to live in societies
resembling these of humans, practicing religion (including Islam, Christianity and Judaism),
having emotions, needing to eat and drink, and can procreate and raise families. Additionally, they fear iron, generally appear
in desolate or abandoned places, and are stronger and faster than humans. Generally, jinn are thought to eat bones and
prefer rotten flesh over fresh flesh. In later Albanian lore, jinn (Xhindi) live
either on earth or under the surface and may possess persons, who insulted them, by for
example, if their children are trodden upon or hot water was thrown on them.The composition
and existence of jinn is the subject of various debates during the Middle Ages. According to Al-Shafi’i (founder of Shafi‘i
schools), the invisibility of jinn is so certain that anyone who thinks they have seen one
is ineligible to give legal testimony — unless they are a Prophet. According to Ashari, the existence of jinn
can not be proven, because arguments concerning the existence of jinn are beyond human comprehension. Adepts of Ashʿari theology explained jinn
are invisible to humans, because they lack the appropriate sense organs to envision them. Critics argued, if jinn exist, their bodies
must either be ethereal or made of solid material; if they were composed of the former, they
would not able to do hard work, like carrying heavy stones. If they were composed of the latter, they
would be visible to any human with functional eyes. Critics therefore refused to believe in a
literal reading on jinn in Islamic sacred texts, preferring to view them as “unruly
men”. On the other hand, advocates of belief in
jinn assert that God’s creation can exceed the human mind; thus, jinn are beyond human
understanding. Since they are mentioned in Islamic texts,
scholars such as Ibn Taimiyya and Ibn Hazm prohibit the denial of jinn. They also refer to spirits and demons among
the Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews to “prove” their existence. Ibn Taymiyya believed the jinn to be generally
“ignorant, untruthful, oppressive and treacherous”. He held that the jinn account for much of
the “magic” that is perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air, delivering
hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.Other
critics, such as Jahiz and Mas’udi, stated that sightings of jinn are due to psychological
causes. According to Mas’udi, the jinn as described
by traditional scholars, are not a priori false, but improbable. Jahiz states in his work Kitab al-Hayawan
that loneliness induces humans to mind-games and wishful thinking, causing waswās (whisperings
in the mind, traditionally thought to be caused by Satan). If he is afraid, he may see things that are
not real. These alleged appearances are told to other
generations in bedtime stories and poems, and with children of the next generation growing
up with such stories, when they are afraid or lonely, they remember these stories, encouraging
their imaginations and causing another alleged sighting of jinn.Later Sufi traditions related
the meaning of jinn back to its origin “something that is concealed from sights”, thus they
were related to the hidden realm, including angels from the heavenly realm and the jinn
from a sublunary realm. Ibn Arabi stated: “Only this much is different:
The spirits of the jinn are lower spirits, while the spirits of angels are heavenly spirits”. The jinn share, due to their intermediary
abode both angelic and human traits. According to some Sufi teachings, a jinn is
like an “empty cup”, composed of its own ego and intention, and a reflection of its observer. Because jinn are closer to the material realm,
it would be easier for human to contact a jinn, than an angel.====In folk literature====Jinn can be found in the One Thousand and
One Nights story of “The Fisherman and the Jinni”; more than three different types of
jinn are described in the story of Ma‘ruf the Cobbler; two jinn help young Aladdin in
the story of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp; as Ḥasan Badr al-Dīn weeps over the grave
of his father until sleep overcomes him, and he is awoken by a large group of sympathetic
jinn in the Tale of ‘Alī Nūr al-Dīn and his son Badr ad-Dīn Ḥasan. In some stories, jinn are credited with the
ability of instantaneous travel (from China to Morocco in a single instant); in others,
they need to fly from one place to another, though quite fast (from Baghdad to Cairo in
a few hours).===Modern era===
Affirmation on the existence of Jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still
widespread in the Middle Eastern world and mental illnesses are often attributed to jinn
possession.Ahmadi interpret jinn not as supernatural beings, but as powerful men whose influence
is felt even though they keep their distance from the common people. According to Mirza Tahir Ahmad, references
to jinn could also mean microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Others try to reconcile the traditional perspective
on jinn, with modern sciences. Fethullah Gülen, leader of Hizmet movement,
had put forward the idea, that jinn may be the cause of schizophrenia and cancer and
that the Quranic references to jinn on “smokeless fire” could for that matter mean “energy”. Others again refuse connections between illness
and jinn, but still believe in their existence, due to their occurrences in the Quran.Modern
Salafi tenets of Islam, refuse reinterpretations of jinn and adhere to literalism, arguing
the threat of jinn and their ability to possess humans, could be proven by Quran and Sunnah. Jinn are taken as serious danger by adherents
of Salafism. Saudi Arabia, following the Wahhabism strant
of Salafism, imposes a death penalty for dealing with jinn to prevent sorcery and witchcraft. Further, there is no distinction made between
demons and indifferent spirits from other cultures, as Salafi scholars Umar Sulaiman
Al-Ashqar stated, that demons are actually simply unbelieving jinn. Muhammad Al-Munajjid, an important scholar
in Salafism and founder of IslamQA, asserts that reciting various quranic verses and adhkaar
(devotional acts involving the repetition of short sentences glorifying God) “prescribed
in Sharia (Islamic law)” can protect against jinn.The importance of belief in jinn to Islamic
belief in contemporary Muslim society was underscored by the judgment of apostasy by
an Egyptian Sharia court in 1995 against liberal theologian Nasr Abu Zayd. Abu Zayd was declared an unbeliever of Islam
for — among other things — arguing that the reason for the presence of jinn in the
Quran was that they (jinn) were part of Arab culture at the time of the Quran’s revelation,
rather than that they were part of God’s creation. Death threats led to Nasr Abu Zayd’s leaving
Egypt several weeks later.====Prevalence of belief====
According a survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2012, at least 86% in Morocco, 84%
in Bangladesh, 63% in Turkey, 55% in Iraq, 53% in Indonesia, 47% in Thailand and 15%
elsewhere in Central Asia, Muslims affirm the existence of jinn. The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced
by Soviet religious oppression.Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a “Jinn attack” by many
sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal. A scientific study found that as many as 48
percent of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the
jinn. Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers
(95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future “Jinn attacks”. In addition, some (9%) would increase their
daily Islamic prayer (salah) to get rid of these attacks by jinn. Sleep paralysis is generally associated with
great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin.==Supernaturality==
The supernaturality of jinn does not mean they are transcendent to nature, but that
they appear so in relation to human’s perception of nature, due to their invisibility. They are “natural” in the classical philosopical
sense by consisting of an element, undergoing change and being bound in time and space. Thus they are not purely spiritual, but also
physical in nature, being able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects,
and also subject to bodily desires like eating and sleeping. Unlike the jinn in Islamic belief and folklore,
jinn in Middle Eastern folktales are often depicted as monstrous or magical creatures,
and unlike the former, generally considered to be fictional.==Depictions==
The appearance of jinn can be divided into three major categories:===Zoomorphic manifestation===
Jinn are assumed to be able to appear in shape of various animals such as scorpions, cats,
owls and onagers. The dog is also often related to jinn, especially
black dogs. However piebald dogs are rather identified
with hinn. Associations between dogs and jinn prevailed
in Arabic-literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures. Serpents are the animals most associated with
jinn. Islamic traditions knows many narratitions
concerning a serpent who was actually a jinni. However (except for the ‘udhrut from Yemeni
folklore) the jinn can not appear in form of wolves. The wolf is thought of as the natural predator
of the jinn, who contrasts the jinn by his noble character and disables them to vanish.===Jinn in form of storms and shadows===
The jinn are also related to the wind. They may appear in mists or sandstorms. Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who is held to have accompanied
Muhammad during his lecture to the jinn, is said to view the jinn as shadowy ghosts with
no individual structure. According to a narration Ghazali asked Ṭabasī,
famous for jinn-incantations, to reveal the jinn to him. Accordingly Tabasi showed him the jinn, seeing
them like they were “a shadow on the wall”. After Ghazali requested to speak to them,
Ṭabasī stated, that for now he could not see more. Although sandstorms are believed to be caused
by jinn, others, such as Abu Yahya Zakariya’ ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini and Ghazali attribute
them to natural causes. Otherwise sandstorms are thought to be caused
by a battle between different groups of jinn.===Anthropomorphic manifestation===
A common characteristic of the jinn is their lack of individuality, but they may gain individuality
by materializing in human forms, such as Sakhr and several jinn known from magical writings. But also in their anthropomorphed shape, they
stay partly animalic and are not fully human. Therefore, individual jinn are commonly depicted
as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or
human with animalic traits. Commonly associated with jinn in humanform
are the Si’lah and the Ghoul. However, since they stay partly animalic,
their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species. Some of them may have the hands of cats, the
head of birds or wings rise from their shoulders.==In witchcraft and magical literature==Witchcraft (Arabic: سِحْر sihr, which
is also used to mean “magic, wizardry”) is often associated with jinn and Afarit around
the Middle East. Therefore, a sorcerer may summon a jinn and
force him to perform orders. Summoned jinn may be sent to the chosen victim
to cause demonic possession. Such summonings were done by invocation, by
aid of talismans or by satisfying the jinn, thus to make a contract. Jinn are also regarded as assistants of soothsayers. Soothsayers reveal information from the past
and present; the jinn can be a source of this information because their lifespans exceed
those of humans.Ibn al-Nadim, Muslim scholar of his Kitāb al-Fihrist, describes a book
that lists 70 Jinn led by Fuqtus (Arabic: Fuqṭus فقْطس), including several jinn
appointed over each day of the week. Bayard Dodge, who translated al-Fihrist into
English, notes that most of these names appear in the Testament of Solomon. A collection of late fourteenth- or early
fifteenth-century magico-medical manuscripts from Ocaña, Spain describes a different set
of 72 jinn (termed “Tayaliq”) again under Fuqtus (here named “Fayqayțūš” or Fiqitush),
blaming them for various ailments. According to these manuscripts, each jinni
was brought before King Solomon and ordered to divulge their “corruption” and “residence”
while the Jinn King Fiqitush gave Solomon a recipe for curing the ailments associated
with each jinni as they confessed their transgressions.A disseminated treatise on the occult, written
by al-Ṭabasī, called Shāmil, deals with subjugating demons and jinn by incantations,
charms and the combination of written and recited formulae and to obtain supernatural
powers through their aid. Al-Ṭabasī distinguished between licit and
illicit magic, the later founded on disbelief, while the first on purity.Seven kings of the
Jinn are traditionally associated with days of the week. Sunday: Al-Mudhib (Abu ‘Abdallah Sa’id)
Monday: Murrah al-Abyad Abu al-Harith (Abu al-Nur)
Tuesday: Abu Mihriz (or Abu Ya’qub) Al-Ahmar Wednesday: Barqan Abu al-‘Adja’yb
Thursday: Shamhurish (al-Tayyar) Friday: Abu Hasan Zoba’ah (al-Abyad)
Saturday: Abu Nuh MaimunDuring the Rwandan genocide, both Hutus and Tutsis avoided searching
local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods because they widely believed the myth that local Muslims
and mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious jinn. In the Rwandan city of Cyangugu, arsonists
ran away instead of destroying the mosque because they feared the wrath of the jinn,
whom they believed were guarding the mosque.==Comparative mythology=====
Ancient Mesopotamian religion===Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are
found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures. The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu,
a wind demon, who was shown with “a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes,
a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings.” The ancient Babylonians believed in utukku,
a class of demons which were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains,
and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside. The Babylonians also believed in the Rabisu,
a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations,
similar to the post-Islamic ghūl, a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically
related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon.Lamashtu, also known as
Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants. Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian
spirits, sometimes with evil propensities. The Assyrians believed in the Alû, sometimes
described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people’s houses
at night and steal their sleep. In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities
similar to jinn were known as ginnayê, an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived
from the name of the genii from Roman mythology. Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê
were thought to resemble humans. They protected caravans, cattle, and villages
in the desert and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor. They were frequently invoked in pairs.===Judaism===
Shedim, one of several supernatural creatures in early Jewish mythology, resemble the Islamic
concept of jinn. Both are said to be invisible to human eyes
but are subject to bodily desires, like procreating and the need to eat, and both may be malevolent
or benevolent. Like the Islamic notion of jinn as pre-Adamites,
Jewish lore also regard shedim as Pre-Adamites, replaced by human beings in some legends. Narrations regarding Asmodeus, an antagonist
in the Solomon legends, appears both in Islamic lore and in the Talmud as the king either
of the jinn or the shedim.===Buddhism===
Similar to the Islamic idea of spiritual entities converting to one’s own religion can be found
on Buddhism lore. Accordingly, Buddha preached among humans,
Devas, Asura spiritual entities who are like humans subject to the cycle of life, that
resembles the Islamic notion of jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans
in regard of eschatological destiny.===Christianity===
Van Dyck’s Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural “jann”
(Arab:الجان}; translation:al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated
into English as “familiar spirit” (אוב , Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus
19:31, 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9, 1 Chronicles 10:13).Some scholars evaluated whether or
not the jinn might be compared to fallen angels in Christian traditions. Comparable to Augustine’s descriptions of
fallen angels as ethereal, the jinn seems to be considered as the same substance. Although the myth of fallen angels is not
absent in the Quran, the jinn nevertheless differ in their major characteristics from
that of fallen angels: While fallen angels fell from heaven, the jinn did not, but try
to climb up to it in order to receive the news of the angels.===Guanche mythology===
In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in
beings that were similar to genies, such as the maxios or dioses paredros (“attendant
gods”, domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota
(aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic Iblīs, is sometimes identified with a genie. The Guanches were the natives of the Canary
Islands before they were colonised and enslaved by the Berbers under Juba II of Numidia.==In popular culture====See also